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Chlorination Systems are a very useful and practical way to handle a wide variety of water quality problems. Chlorine is both an oxidant and a disinfectant. As an oxidant, chlorine can chemically change the molecular structure of many impurities. Often times, the molecular structure of the newly formed impurity is easier to remove from the water supply.   An excellent example of the oxidation process is the oxidation of iron. When the chlorine in the water interacts with dissolved iron in the water, it alters it from a ferrous (fe+2) to a ferric (fe+3) state. The ferrous iron, sometimes called a clear water iron, cannot be easily filtered out of the water. However, the ferric iron, sometimes call red water iron can be easily filtered out of the water. Thus the addition of the chlorine is instrumental in the removal of the iron from a water supply. Other impurities in the water are also affected by the oxidation principal of chlorine.
Additionally, chlorine is a powerful disinfectant. As a disinfectant, chlorine will kill bacteria, virus and many other micro-organisms. Chlorine has been used for over 100 years for this purpose. Virtually all municipally treated water has chlorine added to their water. Often municipal systems add chlorine in a couple different phases of their treatment process.   Although very effective for bacteria and virus, their are some micro-organisms such as cryptosporidium and giardia that are not effectively destroyed by chlorination.